Africa Integrity Indicators

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What are the Africa Integrity Indicators?

In 2012, Global Integrity embarked on a five-year collaboration with the Mo Ibrahim Foundation to generate the Africa Integrity Indicators (AII), which assesses key social, economic, political and anti-corruption mechanisms at the national level across all 54 African countries.

Both the breadth and depth of coverage are significant – producing detailed, evidence-based governance data across the entire continent, with scoring and detailed comments based on the expertise of in-country contributors, corroborated by multiple sources and reviewers.

Measuring both the existing legal framework and the “in practice” implementation is key in our effort to produce actionable governance data that help governments, citizens and civil society understand and evaluate the status quo and identify intervention points for subsequent reform efforts.

Methodology

The Africa Integrity Indicators are scored by in-country researchers following an evidence-based investigation methodology: Rather than relying on experiences or pre-existing perceptions by experts, the strength of Global Integrity’s methodology is that it requires a variety of sources of information to be reviewed and documented (including legal and scholarly reviews, interviews with experts, and reviews of media stories) to substantiate the score choice. Following the qualitative assessment compiled by the researcher, the resultant data points are then reviewed blindly by a panel of peer reviewers, drawing on the expertise of a mix of in-country experts as well as outside experts.

Each indicator is presented for the user with three elements – score, explanatory comment, and sources. These components mean that a given scorecard presents a wealth of information. Scores allow for general comparisons across countries, while sources and comments provide a unique window into the realities of regulation and enforcement in each country. The questionnaire has 114 indicators and is divided in two main categories:

Transparency and Accountability. Drawing from the indicators of the Global Integrity Report (GIR), the Transparency and Accountability category consists of 59 indicators examining issues divided in the thematic areas of rule of law, accountability, elections, public management integrity, civil service integrity, and access to information. The indicators look into transparency of the public procurement process, media freedom, asset disclosure requirements, independence of the judiciary, and conflict of interest laws, among others.

Social Development. The Social Development category consists of 51 indicators about gender, rights, welfare, rural sector, business environment, health and education. It is important to note that this category of the questionnaire was designed to feed the Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG) in areas not covered by the secondary data sources it utilizes. Therefore, it does not attempt to be a comprehensive assessment by itself. Because the Social Development portion of the questionnaire only includes a small number of questions per each topic area, Global Integrity only provides the scores per each individual indicator and won’t provide category or subcategory scores. For example, there are only two questions about Health and users can access the score for each of those two indicators, but they won’t find an overall Health score or an overall Social Development score.

Data

In August of 2015, the first three rounds of data (2013, 2014 and 2015) were published on a newly designed website, providing users complete access to the raw data, as well as findings by issue area. Data for the fourth round (2016) is available in a provisional form until the end of May 2016, to allow users to flag gross inaccuracies that can be addressed in the final data.

We presented the data to external audiences including the World Bank Global Governance Practice, and the Mandela Fellows. Portions of the data are used in the Ibrahim Index of African Governance, while other elements continue to be used by the World Bank (as a part of the World Governance Indicators), the Millennium Challenge Corporation, and, importantly, a variety of in-country actors who connect with GI seeking evidence they can take action upon.

As of February 2016, the project is in its fourth round of research, which intended for initial publication in April 2016. Four new indicators have been added this round (on vital statistics), as the AII research continues to be responsive to the needs of data users, seeking to collect information that provides the most useful – and actionable – information to those seeking improved governance.

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Visit the project microsite to access the data, details and more information.

2013 (XLS) (CSV) | 2014 (XLS) (CSV) | 2015 (XLS) (CSV)

2016 (XLS) (CSV)

2014-2016 Combined (XLS) (CSV)

*As explained in the methodology description, 2013 was a pilot phase, which prevents easy comparability between 2013 and later rounds.

Findings

In August 2015, we analyzed the research and produced an initial set of findings for the first 3 rounds, which are available for download. Findings for the 4th round will be completed in the coming months, and finalized by the end of June 2016. However, the rich data lends itself to much deeper analysis – and is designed to be particularly fruitful when identifying areas for improvement at the country level.

Aggregate category and subcategory scores serve as guideposts only – specific items for improvement are found at the indicator level. For instance, a country may have a low aggregate score in the public management integrity section. Looking into this, a user may notice that the lowest scores of the section were earned in indicators focusing on certain elements of the procurement process – effective blacklisting, or timely public accessibility of award and contract information, etc.

In this case, these would present clear opportunities for improvement. Likewise, just because a certain country receives a middling or relatively higher aggregate score in a subcategory, this does not preclude room for significant improvement in certain areas – there will often be an indicator or two where the performance is lower, and left unattended, these represent an identified corruption risk that can be improved upon.

Access the complete findings report here.

Next Steps

We are actively investigating opportunities to build from the AII data toward more intentional in-country engagement — listening to in-country actors in an attempt to understand how the data can be most useful to those who can directly influence reforms.

In the near future, we intend to partner with in-country stakeholders, including reformers inside and outside of government, to facilitate stakeholder conversations around nascent reform opportunities. Identifying bright spots and challenges will help to empower in-country-reformers make decisions and use comparative elements to share and learn from other countries’ experiences, thereby catalyzing locally-led problem solving towards ‘best fit’ solutions.

If you’re interested in working with this data to identify such opportunities in your country, contact us at scott.rumpsa@globalintegrity.org

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Contributors

In each round of Africa Integrity Indicators research, approximately 150 professionals contribute. While the vast majority are named below, a few have requested anonymity with valid reasoning, and Global Integrity has agreed not to disclose their names.

Round 1 (2013) Contributors

  • Lead Researchers
    • Youlouka Damiba, Emmanuel Aiyede, Soha Farouk, Aderito Machava, Ralph Mathekga, Kalkali El-Hadi, Claude-Ernest Kiamba, Lucien Toulou, Harinaivo Mboara Nirina Andrianarimanana, Papa Amadou Bâ, Ignatius Ssuuna, Didace Kanyugu, Njekwa Mate, Abdirahman Hussein, Abdellatif Ngadi, Molefe Phirinyane, Thomas Doe Nah, Christian Mahillet, Peter Bofin, Fiona Namutebi, Leon Kukkuk, Alain Douathe Koyangozo, Joseph Chunga, Noemie Wetterwald, Dimpho Motsamai, Elieth Eyebiyi, Josué Gomes de Almeida, Hamani Oumarou, Odair Varela, Jean-Louis Romanet Perroux, Rim Nour, Durrel Halleson, Naffet Keita, Benjamin Vel, Solofo Randrianja, Katya Aragao, Fredrick Wanyama, Joseph Koffi Nutefé Tsigbe, Emmanuel Saffa Abdulai, Ramola Ramtohul, Lucas Jorge Olo Fernandes and Joel Célestin Mamboundou Alevinat.
  • Country Reviewers
    • Mustapha Chouikha, Ismael Mahamoud, Foromo Frederic Loua, Terza Lima-Neves, Ivan Atuyambe, Lindiwe Nesila Khumalo-Matse, Eric Ngang, Cheikh Tijani Isselmou, Hisham Soliman, Mohamed Turay, Saikou Ceesay, Michael Seifu, Jean Keberé, Atef Al-saadawy, Jean Claude Bitsure, Rajen Govender, Goodwell Lungu, Adigbli Koffigan E., Alastaire Alinsato, Denboy Kudejira, Bacha Kebede Debela, Meghan Foster Lynch, Antoine Doudjidingao, Andriamahavonjy Florent, Saad Filali Meknassi, Stephen Kaduuli, Abdurrahman Warsameh, Balde Dian, McDonald Chipenzi, Lilian Ekeanyanwu, Nasr-Eddine Lezzar, Wallace Chuma, Terrence Lyons, Fernand Nouwligbeto, Adelard Mambuya Obul’Okwess, Bonfas Owinga, Jasper Cummeh, Babacar Gueye, Carrie Davies, Daniel Mekonnen, Abdoul Mountalib Abdel Wedoude, Jean Pascal Obembo, Onana Renner, Brendan Kelly, Rachid Aboutaieb, Paulino Dias, Richard Mgamba, Ibrahim Mouiche, Nnenna Nwakanma, Kennethy Opala, Maxton Tsoka, Baboo Mintarsingh Nowbutsing, Nana Yaw Saah Aboagye, Norbert Musekiwa, Patrick Semphere, Samuel Adams, Joseph Fashagba, Nonhlanhla Chanza, Jean Papy Manika Manzongani, Debora Valentina Malito, Mamadou Falilou Sarr, William (Bill) Lindeke, Dicko Bréma Ely, Kaphalo Ségorbah Silwé, Thierry Vircoulon, Aden Omar Abdillahi, Eva Palmans, and Frederico Cavazzini.
  • Functional Reviewers
    • Serges Alain Djoyou Kamga, Paul Omondi, Emanuele Santi, and Francina Mhundwa.
  • Regional Reviewers
    • Boniface Dulani, Martin-Luther C. King, Claude Kabemba, Paula Mejia, Sakwa Buliba, Karin Alexander, and Koffi Ahanogbe.

Round 2 (2014) Contributors

  • Lead Researchers
    • Fethi Zaaf, Dulce Fernandes, Maria Lucia Da Silveira, Pacome Tometissi, Kagiso Madibana, Yacouba Bama, W. Aimé Sawadogo, Laetitia Dushimirimana, Stephen Asek, Paul Joel Kamtchang, Rosana Maria Pereira Almeida, Edson Medina, Alain Douathe Koyangozo, Christian Mahillet, Harinaivo Mboara Nirina Andrianarimanana, Aurelie Ganga, William Assanvo, Alexise Evelyne Ouedraogo, Landry Bundju Mopeko, Kenedid Ibrahim Houssein, Muhammad Mansour, Paul de Zardain, Albert Futukpor, Pierra Camara, Tomas Serna, Allan Akombo, Moletsane Monyake, Mahamed Boakai, Nancy Porsia, Toavina Ralambomahay, Joseph Chunga, Souboua David Dembele, Kane Elimane, Madvee Muthu, Amedee Darga, Aida Alami, Aderito Machava, Patience Nyangove, Iain Walker, Ini Ekott, Katya Aragao, Sarr Jacques Ngor, Cheri Baker, Yvonne Rowa, Abdisalan Ahmed, Miriam Mannak, Charlton Doki, Mohammed Ahmed, Tom Mosoba, Sofiane Bouhdiba, Fiona Namutebi, Glory Mushinge, Denboy Kudejira, Noemie Wetterwald, Lucien Toulou, Ishmael Kindama Dumbuya, Santorri Chamley, Erin Byrnes, Harinaivo Mboara Nirina Andrianarimanana
      Mé-Chinhô, Eva Palmans, Combey Djidjolé Combetey, and Patience Nyangove.
  • Country Reviewers
    • Kalkali El-Hadi, Achamou Simon Chabi Ayedoun, David Mandiyanike, Norbert Musekiwa, Jean Keberé, Francois Pazisnewende Kabore, Casimir Ngendanganya, Eric Ngang, Terza Lima-Neves, Odair Varela, Paulino Dias, Claudine Bagaza Dini, Emile Bizon, Antoine Doudjidingao, Michael Didama, Iain Walker, Attoumani Mohamed Karim, Joseph-Alain Kabongo, Christian Mounzeo, Jean-François Yao, Nicolas Negoce, Anthony Gambino, Ngongo Ngambwa, Ismael Mahamoud, Aden Omar Abdillahi, Hisham Soliman, Atef Al-saadawy, Hilario Sue Alene, Joshua Marks, Wegahta Sereke, Terrence Lyons, Michael Seifu, Eyob Keno Guta, Douglas Yates, Beatrice Torto, Samuel Adams, Foromo Frederic Loua, Paul Kamau, Abdullahi Halakhe, Alexis Stergakis, Lehlohonolo Chefa, Finlay Young, George Kieh, Intissar Rajabany, Jean-Louis Romanet Perroux, Juvence Ramasy, Rado Rakotoarinala, Jimmy Kainja, John Kadzandira, Harouna Fomba, Fidèle Guindou, Cheikh Tijani Isselmou, Abdoul Mountalib Abdel Wedoude, Baboo Mintarsingh Nowbutsing, Ramola Ramtohul, Estacio Valoi, Carrie Davies, William (Bill) Lindeke, Boubakar Chaibou, Ali Salatou, Lilian Ekeanyanwu, Joseph Fashagba, Francois Masabo, Gerhard Seibert, Abdel Kader Bèye, Ben Carson, Anders Reimers Larsen, Debora Valentina Malito, Rajen Govender, Nonhlanhla Chanza, Augustino Ting Mayai, Haliema Altalib, Mantoe Phakathi, Maxwell Mthembu, Alexander Boniface Makulilo, Poncelet Ileleji, Joseph Koffi Nutefé Tsigbe, Mustapha Chouikha, Sameh Zouari, Ibrahim Kasirye, Stephen Kaduuli, Emmanuel Chungu, McDonald Chipenzi, Wallace Chuma, Maxwell Musingafi, Akofoundi Wilfrid Bassale, Serges Alain Djoyou Kamga, Saad Filali Meknassi, Levison Kabwato, Hilario Sue Alene, Noemie Wetterwald, Gerhard Seibert, Marc-André Boisvert, and Terza Lima-Neves.
  • Functional Reviewers
    • Stefan Gilbert, Amaka Anku, Sarah Bracking, Jackline Sagwe, Jamils Richard Achunji Anguaseh, Razafinimanana Andriamahefa Nirisoa Malalatiana, Ronda Zelezny-Green, Korieh Duodu, Fola Adeleke, Dorcas Mbuvi, Vitus Adaboo Azeem, Ermira Danaj, Maureen Lewis, Anderson Fumulani, Stephen Yeboah, Eduardo Namburete, Sakwa Buliba, Benyam Dawit Mezmur, Endalkachew Hilemikael Chala, Ajong Mbapndah L., Hakeem Yusuf, Irene Nyambura Mwangi, Francois Joseph Azoh, Muzong Kodi, Serge Nanourou, Yvonne Wangui Machira, Dennis Mbugua Muthama, Bonfas Owinga, Joao Vembane, Ritva Reinikka, Paul Adepelumi, Christine Akinyi Akello, Ondari D. Mogeni, Eva Palmans, Akofoundi Wilfrid Bassale, Serges Alain Djoyou Kamga, Saad Filali Meknassi, Levison Kabwato, Lucien Toulou, and Erin Byrnes.
  • Regional Reviewers
    • Rayna Stamboliyska, Boniface Dulani, Sidy Sissoko, Annette Hübschle, Koffi Ahanogbe, Paul Omondi, Martin-Luther C. King, and David Shinn.

Round 3 (2015) Contributors

  • Lead Researchers
    • Glory Mushinge, Abdelgadir Mohammed, Ini Ekott, Aderito Machava, Mé-Chinhô Albano Costa Alegre, Juvenal Rodrigues, Tamara Aguas, Fethi Zaaf, Pacome Tometissi, Sawadogo Aime, Laetitia Dushimirimana, Paul-Joel Kamtchang, Alain Douathe Koyangozo, Mahamat Ramadane, Harinaivo Mboara Nirina Andrianarimanana, Aubrey Sidney Adoua Mbongo, Albert Futukpor, Pierre Camara, Allan Akombo, Lehlohonolo Chefa, Mahamed Boakai, David Dembele, Elimane Kane, Edmund Kagire, Jacques Ngor Sar, Miriam Mannak, Charlton Doki, Sofiane Boudhiba, Denboy Kudejira, Majdolin Hassan, Fiona Namutebi, Dulce Fernandes, Marcos Ngola, Kagiso Madibana, Odair Barros Varela, Dismas Lyassa, Nashilongo Gervasius, Patience Nyangove, Seydou Souley Mahamadou, Symphorien Pyana, Matilde Stoleroff, Ishmael Kindama Dumbuya, Santorri Chamley and Charra Terfassa.
  • Country Reviewers
    • Jimmy Kainja, Chipenzi McDonald, Ismail Modawiy, Madvee Muthu, Victor Adetula, Estacio Valoi, Debora Valentina Malito, Gerhard Seibert, Nadir Boumaza, Wilfried Bassale, Francois Pazisnewende Kaboré, Eric Ngang, Claudine Bagaza Dini, Antoine Doudjidingao, Saïd Hassane Saïd Mohamed, Franck Nguimbi Mbenze, Aden Omar Abdillahi, Beatrice Torshie Torto, Frederic Foromo Loua, Paul Kamau, Thuso Joel Ramabolu, George Kieh, Moussa Moise Sangare, Cheikh Tijani Isselmou, Susan Thomson, Fatou Jagne-Senghore, Koffi Ahanogbe, Augustino Mayai, Mantoe Phakathi, Sameh Sellami Zouari, Wallace Chuma, Ibrahim Kasirye, David Mandiyanike, Terrence Lyons, Eyob Keno, Edson Medina, Nancy Porsia, Atef Al-Saadawy, Ben Carson, Levison Kabwato, Saad Filali Meknassi, Alexandre Dubuisson, Sasso Pagnou, and Juvence Ramasy.
  • Functional Reviewers
    • Fatou Jagne-Senghore, Victor Adetula, Stefan Gilbert, Sarah Bracking, Vitus Adaboo Azeem, Frank McLoughlin, Fola Adeleke, Levison Kabwato, Erin Byrnes, Gilbert Sendugwa, Irene Mwangi, Eduardo Namburete, Ronda Zelezny-Green, Daniel Dunga, Bonfas Owinga, Jamils Richard Achunji Anguaseh, Ondari D. Mogeni, Christine Akello, Paul Dominique Correa, Sékou Bamba, Eva Palmans, Saad Filali Meknassi, Serges Alain Kamga, Stephen Yeboah, Foromo Frederic Loua, Nirisoa Malalatiana Andriamahefa Razafinimanana, Ousmane Faye, Kathambi Kinoti, Ermira Danaj, Wilfried Bassale, Roger Tafotie, Nicaise Deguenonvo Marius, Nkolo Ayissi Ernest, Claire Hassoun, Hicham Ait Mansour, Kathambi Kinoti and Yvonne Wangui Machira.

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Global Integrity is dedicated to producing high quality data and insuring that it is as useful as possible to local stakeholders — both inside and outside of government around the world. If you have questions, comments, or thoughts please contact us at scott.rumpsa@globalintegrity.org.